Wisconsin Discovery Portal

Researcher: Ronald Raines

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Areas of Research Expertise
* Chemical biology, protein design and engineering, enzymology
* Atomic detail of chemical basis and biological purpose for protein structure and function
* Explanantion of biological phenomena by the principles of biochemistry
* Nucleases, including ribonuclease A, Onconase®, and angiogenin
* Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and thioredoxin
Web Site Ronald Raines' University Web Page
Curriculum Vitae (CV)
Current/Active Funding
  • DHHS, PHS, NIH, 2009-2013, Ribonucleases in Cancer Chemotherapy
  • Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, 2009-2014, Kellet Faculty Researcher Award
  • DHHS, PHS, NIH, 2009-2013, Protein Chemistry
  • NIH, 2008-2013, Chemistry and Biology of Collagen
  • Multiple Donors, 1990-2018, Engineering sequence-specific ribonucleases
  • DHHS, NIH, 2011-2012, Bioorthogonal Generation and Use of Diazo Compounds
  • DHHS, NIH, 2011-2012, Alkene Isosteres to Probe Substrate Conformation in Prolyl Hydroxylases
  • Autism Speaks, 2011-2013, Macrocephalic Autism: Exploring and Exploiting the Role of PTEN
  • Pfizer, 2001-2099, Undergraduate Research Fellowship
  • UWF, 2010-2099, Protein Biochemistry Research
Issued Patent(s)
  • 7,977,079 - Nucleic acid constructs encoding cytotoxic ribonuclease variants, granted Jul 2011.
  • 7,973,132 - Cell-permeable fluorescent proteins, granted Jul 2011.
  • 7,932,239 - Methods of and compositions for reducing neuronal cell death, granted Apr 2011. 
  • 7,863,301 - Potentiators of insulin secretion, granted Jan 2011.
  • 7,858,741 - Stabilization of the collagen triple helix by O-methylation of hydroxyproline residues, granted Dec 2010. 
USPTO Published Applications
  • 20110195931 - Methods and compositions for reducing neuronal cell death, Aug 2011.
  • 20110071222 - Potentiators of insulin secretion, Mar 2011.
  • 20110065159 - Biomass hydrolysis, Mar 2011.
  • 20100233809 - Cytotoxic ribonuclease variants, Sept 2010.
  • 20100125132 - Preparation of diazo and diazonium compounds, May 2010.
Recent Publication(s)
  • "Bovine Pancreatic Ribonuclease: Fifty Years of the First Enzymatic Reaction Mechanism"

Cuchillo CM, Nogues MV, Raines RT, Biochemistry 50(37): 7835-7841 Sep 2011. Here, we celebrate this historic accomplishment by surveying knowledge of enzymology and protein science at that time, facts that led to the formulation of the mechanism, criticisms and alternative mechanisms, data that supported the proposed mechanism, and some of the refinements that have since provided a more precise picture of catalysis of RNA cleavage by ribonucleases.

  • "An Evaluation of Peptide-Bond Isosteres"

Choudhary A, Raines RT, Chembiochem 12(12): 1801-1807 Aug 2011. In this Minireview, the electronic, structural, and conformational attributes of four such isosteres-thioamides, esters, alkenes, and fluoroalkenes-are examined in detail.

  • "Site-specific folate conjugation to a cytotoxic protein"

Smith BD, Higgin JJ, Raines RT, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 21(17): 5029-5032 Sep 2011. Here, the random acylation of amino groups in wild-type RNase A with folic acid is shown to decrease its catalytic activity dramatically, presumably because of the alteration to a key active-site residue, Lys41.

  • "Site-specific PEGylation endows a mammalian ribonuclease with antitumor activity"

Rutkoski TJ, Kink JA, Strong LE, et al., Cancer Biology & Therapy 12(3): 208-214 Aug 2011. We reasoned that site-specific conjugation of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain could both reduce sensitivity to RI and increase serum half-life.

Recent Artistic Works  
  • Chungbuk National University (South Korea), Biochemistry
  • Chung Ang University (South Korea), Ophthalmology
  • Quintessence Bioscience Inc.
Research Tools
  • Isothermal Titration Calorimeter
  • Differential Scanning Calorimeter
  • Analytical Ultracentrifuge
  • Circular Dichroism Spectrometer
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
  • Surface Plasmon Resonance Detector
Research Facilities
  • Biophysics Instrumentation Facility
E-mail Address [email protected]
Phone Number (608) 262-8588
Current University UW - Madison
Department Biochemistry / Chemistry
Title Professor
Other Appointments
Director, Biophysics Instrumentation Facility
Address Line 1 371B Biochemistry Addition
Address Line 2 433 Babcock Drive
City Madison
State WI
Zip Code 53706
Bachelor's Degree ScB, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biology and Chemistry, 1980
Master's Degree AM, Harvard University, Chemistry, 1982
PhD PhD, Harvard University, Chemistry, 1986
Other Degrees
Technologies Available for Licensing

Stable, Oxidation-Resistant Inhibitors for Reducing Ribonuclease Contamination

Method of Reducing Neural Cell Death

Cytotoxic Ribonuclease Variants